The first generation commercial machines also appeared - usually based on the 8080 or the Z80 or 6502. The Commodore PET was one of the early sucesses and it, along with the Commodore 64, Sinclair's three machines (ZX80, ZX81 and Spectrum) and the BBC Micro probably accounted for most of the infant home-computer market in Britain.
I decided on a different approach. Unhappy with the concept of having to re-live
the glory-days of the
with the hobby-boards fraternity (!), and unhappy with the straitjacketed
architectures and joke operating systems of the 1st generation home computers,
I yearned for more. Specifically, what I wanted was something
more like a Unix clone at home. I was used to V7 Unix on the PDP-11 at university
and wasn't keen to step backwards 10 years to the technology of CP/M and BASIC
I wasn't to know that eight years later a guy called Linus Torvalds was going to think the same thoughts and do much the same things. The big difference was that he was in the right place and the right time and had internet connectivity - I didn't have any of these advantages!
I went off and built myself a 6809 based computer with 64K of RAM, a 360K floppy disk drive and an RS232 interface which could drive a glass-TTY. Please remember that this was 1982. Hard disks, megabytes of RAM and other familiar modern things were a long way off.
After going through the usual hard work of writing a BIOS complete with an S-records downloader, I was in a position to write myself an operating system. Preliminary work on OMU started in late 1983. My earliest surviving printouts of the sources on yellowed, faded lineprinter paper show that the bulk of the work on OMU dates from March/April/May 1984.
Work was not helped by the fact that I was having to write a 'C' compiler in parallel, but certainly by mid 1984 I had a perfectly usable O/S with a primitive shell, a port of Unix 'ed' for an editor, and with 'fsck' and other such tools available to repair the filestore disks when they got damaged by miswrites from the rather dodgy floppy-disk hardware. I remember taking the machine home over Christmas 1984 and typing up several reports using it on the kitchen table.
I just found this photo of the 1984 machine amongst a box of slides taken
over that Christmas. It appears to be the only photo of the machine I ever
took at the time.
At this point in its evolution, the hardware was mostly on one double eurocard, with a floppy-disk interface piggybacked onto it. The floppy-disk drive is in the metal box at front, and the bigger metal box at the RHS of the PCBs is the power-supply.
The lack of an MMU and the small amount of RAM available meant that I decided against trying to implement true multitasking. Instead (like DOS as it happens) I came up with a scheme whereby a process could launch another process, but would have to wait for it to complete. Clunky, but it worked OK.
For your entertainment (or possibly if you're interested in the possibility of porting my old O/S to more modern hardware like that old XT that's gathering dust under your table) here's a downloadable copy of my final version of the 6809 OMU as it stood in 1987:
In order to make any use of OMU, I had compiled up a set of utilities like 'ed' and 'mount' and 'fsck'. Sadly I don't think I can make their sources downloadable here as they were based on the Unix V7 sources for which we had a Bell Labs "academic use" licence at the university.
NEW! The above packages now include some utilities which I did write from scratch:
I don't suggest any modern user of OMU on a 6809 tries getting GNU utilities running with it! Bear in mind that V7 sources would compile into a smaller executable than any modern GNU equivalents. With the 64K memory-address limitation of my 6809, this was important! The BIOS and O/S accounted for about 24K of this, so user-programs were limited to about 40K total. I never did complete my page-switched 256K memory system.....
Mind you, if you're contemplating porting to a 68000 or IBM-PC, the size constraints will be much less of a problem.
My work on OMU was pretty much unnoticed by anyone else in the world (we didn't have an internet connection in those days), but others in the Electrical Engineering dept at Swansea University saw the potential to port OMU to one of several 68000 single-board-computers which began to appear in the department from about 1984/85 onwards.
My colleage Terry Barnaby and I were variously involved with porting OMU to several of these 68000 based SBCs. Terry did most of the work! The first stage was merely to take OMU and get it to run on the new hardware much as my 6809 version was doing already. This was accomplishe reasonably quickly, complete with the addition of the OMU's first driver for a hard-disk. The much greater memory-addressing ability of the 68000 coupled with the fact that the SBCs typically had 256K of RAM on board meant that this version of OMU soon featured some multi-tasking capabilities (though with no MMU available the processes had to be well-behaved).
For convenience, the details of the filestore layout and the system-call interface of 68000 OMU was designed to duplicate those of the commercial 68000 V7 Unix system made by "Codata" (we had just taken delivery of two of these units to augment the aging PDP-11). It is I think a credit to OMU's potential that it soon became possible to compile programs on the Codata, and run them on OMU with no problems. Indeed, it was also possible to take system binaries shipped with the Codata and run them on OMU too - an easy way to get 'vi' and other state-of-the-art (!) software on OMU without having to dig out the sources and recompile!
Terry Barnaby and another of his colleages Tim Ingersoll then made some fundamental changes to the message-handling abilities of the 68000 OMU port to make it suitable for Real-Time signal processing and control applications. This was after all what the two of them really wanted as part of their Ph.D projects...! In 1988 they finished their projects, wrote up and left. Part of their legacy was the RTOS version of OMU, and I managed to salvage a set of sources for that too:
If any reader of these pages feels suitably daring they may be able to beat me to the target of porting OMU (probably working from Terry's and my initial 68000 version above) to the IBM PC. I consider that there really is no point in aiming for the 386 processor machines onwards as Linux already does everything you could hope for on that class of machines.
It does however seem that there is mileage in starting with the boot-loader that comes with FreeDOS , and getting OMU to run on 8086/80286 machines of which there must be loads lying around virtually unwanted these days.
If you do decide to try such a thing, then I wish you the best of luck and I'll offer any email help I can. My email address is in the README file included with the any of the sets of downloadable sources.
My thanks also go to Alan Cox (he of Linux networking and kernel hacking fame) without whose prodding this page might never have been written.
Copyright (c) 1999, Steve Hosgood